General Information about Kurnool District
Scarce Rainfall zone of Rayalaseema region of A.P. is one of the seven agro climatic Zones of the state characterized by a low, scanty and erratic rainfall due to which successful crop production with good yields is unexpectable and dry land agriculture is predominant with a variety of rain fed crops in this zone. The scarce rainfall zone of Rayalaseema regional occupies an area of 47659 sq.km. Constituting 17.4% of the State’s geographical area. Apart from parts of other districts of Rayalaseema region and parts of Mahaboobnagar district of Telangana region the whole of Kurnool District with 53 mandals falls within the scarce rainfall zone. This zone supports a total population of 60.15 Lakhs and mainly an agrarian in character with about 38% of its geographical area under cultivation with ¾ th of the population depending upon agriculture.
Kurnool District is situated in the southern parts of the State with 54 Mandals, 11 Agricultural Sub divisions and 918 Revenue Villages. One Mandal i.e. Srisailam is a Non Agriculture mandal consisting of Hills, Hillocks and Forests. The District is situated on 14 o –54 ‘ to 16 o –11’ Northern latitude and 76 o-58 ‘ to 78o-25’ Eastern longitude and the altitude varies from 400m above the mean sea level.
The total geographical area of the District is 17658 sq. km. and accounts for 6.43% in the area of the state, with a population of 30.7 Lakhs in a density of 168 sq.km. Nallamalas and Erramalas are the main mountain ranges in the District running in parallel lines from North to South. The Erramalas divide the District into 2 well defined tracts from East to West. Between the 2 mountain ranges lies the eastern part of the district, comprising of 26 mandals. Western part is comprising of 38 mandals.
The normal rainfall in the district is 630mm. It is so closer to the minimum requirement of rainfall for normal crop growth and a little variation inn the annual rainfall adversely effect the prospects of the crops in the district . It varies largely from year to year and is being distributed unevenly in the District. 71% of rainfall is generally received in South West monsoon, 19% in North East monsoon and 10 in summer & winter seasons,. The district is normally prone to either drought or floods during every year, because of vagaries of monsoons. Normally, the winds shift to South-West with high velocity and brings showers towards the end of May and in the succeeding 4 months, wind blows from western side in the major parts of the district and precipices giving sufficient quantum of rainfall. The wind is light and variable at the end of September and helps for on-set of North-East Monsoon during October, winds are rare after October and the winter is fine after October with the occurrence of heavy due. Generally Low rainfall is being recorded in the western parts of the district, where as eastern parts and South Eastern parts receive normal rainfall.
Maximum and minimum temperatures vary between 30 o to 41.4 o C and 16.7 o to 28.2 o C respectively and Maximum temperature in May and minimum temperature in January are being recorded in the district.
Principal rivers flowing in the District are Tungabhadra, Handri (a tributary to Tungabhadra) Krishna, Kunderu and Zureeru. Floods all along the banks of the above rivers are common, when ever high rainfall is received in the district and also at the upper reaches. The main irrigation sources are K.C Canal, TBP LLC and TBP HLC., Irrigation Projects of Zurreru, Gajuladinne, RDS and Mylavaram are the important Medium Irrigation Projects. The Telugu Ganga Project ( TGP ) & Srisailam Right Branch Canal ( SRBC ) Projects are in offing.
Out of 54 mandals, 36 mandals have possessed with canal irrigation and 18 mandals, are devoid of canal irrigation.
The net cultivable area is 9,25,045 ha out of which 1,31,802 ha. is the registered ayacut under canal systems.